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Model of Infrared Galaxy Evolution

In order to better reproduce new obervationnal constraints, the previous IAS model (Lagache et al., 2004, 2003) was updated in Bethermin, Dole, Lagache, Le Borgne and Penin (2011, AandA 529 A4, http://arxiv.org/abs/1010.1150).

This new model used the previous Lagache et al. (2004) Galaxy SED templates and a fully parametric evolution of the luminosity function. The parameters of the model was determined fitting the infrared/sub-mm number counts, and some mid-IR luminosity functions with a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC).

You can access to the Lagache et al (2004) model and products using this LDP04 link.

Page Content
1- Presentation of the new model
2- Number counts in ASCII table.
3- Predictions toolkit (IDL programs + IDL savesets)
4- SED (Spectral Energy Distributions) used in the model, in ASCII tables
5- Simulations
6- Getting the Papers
7- Links to other recent models

1- Presentation of the model

Modelling the infrared galaxy evolution using a phenomenological approach

M. Bethermin, H. Dole, G. Lagache, D. Le Borgne and A. Penin, 2011 (AandA 529 A4).

We aim at modeling the infrared galaxy evolution in an as simple as possible way and reproduce statistical properties among which the number counts between 15 microns and 1.1 mm, the luminosity functions, and the redshift distributions. We then aim at using this model to interpret the recent observations (Spitzer, Akari, BLAST, LABOCA, AzTEC, SPT and Herschel), and make predictions for future experiments like CCAT or SPICA.

This model uses an evolution in density and luminosity of the luminosity function with two breaks at redshift ~0.9 and 2 and contains the two populations of the Lagache et al. (2004) model: normal and starburst galaxies. We also take into account the effect of the strong lensing of high-redshift sub-millimeter galaxies. It has 13 free parameters and 8 additional calibration parameters. We fit the parameters to the IRAS, Spitzer, Herschel and AzTEC measurements with a Monte-Carlo Markov chain.

The model ajusted on deep counts at key wavelengths reproduces the counts from the mid-infrared to the millimeter wavelengths, as well as the mid-infrared luminosity functions. We discuss the contribution to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and to the infrared luminosity density of the different populations. We also estimate the effect of the lensing on the number counts, and discuss the recent discovery by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) of a very bright population lying at high-redshift. We predict confusion level for future missions using a P(D) formalism, and the Universe opacity to TeV photons due to the CIB.

In all the work, we use the WMAP 7 year cosmology (Larson et al., 2010).

2- Number counts in ASCII tables

A collection of tables containing the predicted counts for different instruments (MIPS, SPIRE, HFI...) can be downloaded here in ascii, embedded in a tgz file(0.1Mb)

3- Prediction toolkit

Lots of predictions can be done from dN/dS/dz(S,z,lambda) (see the Bethermin et al. 2011). We generated a grid in flux, redshift and wavelength of this quantity for the mean parameters of the model (given in the paper Table 1):

The grids (save.gz files below) have been updated on Apr 15th, 2011. The passbands of Planck, Herschel and SPT have been updated with the measured transmission.

- dndsnudz_arr_meanmodel_final.save.gz (100 Mb) contains the total contribution.
- dndsnudz_arr_lensed_meanmodel_final.save.gz (100 Mb) contains the contribution of the strongly-lensed sources (magnification greater than 2).
- dndsnudz_arr_unlensed_meanmodel_final.save.gz (100 Mb) contains the contribution of non-lensed sources.
- dndsnudz_arr_nolensing_meanmodel_final.save.gz (100 Mb) is a version with the lensing model off.
- README explains the content of these IDL save files.

If you want to study the uncertainties on the model, we also provide IDL save files containing several realizations of the model: - dndsnudz_arr_final.save.gz (100 Mb) contains the total contribution.
- dndsnudz_arr_lensed_final.save.gz (100 Mb) contains the contribution of the strongly-lensed sources (magnification greater than 2).
- dndsnudz_arr_unlensed_final.save.gz (100 Mb) contains the contribution of non-lensed sources.
- dndsnudz_arr_nolensing_final.save.gz (100 Mb) is a version with the lensing model off.

Some program (with a documented header) computing different predictions (counts, N(z), CIB) can be downloaded here in a single tgz file (2kb) (updated in April 2011, bugs corrected). If you need other predictions, please contact matthieu. bethermin chez ias. u-psud. fr. But, remember that this model is parametric. Some predictions can be easily done directly from the fitted parameters and the equations given in the paper.

4- Spectral Energy Distributions in ASCII

Note that these SED are valid to wavelengths from 4 microns to 3 mm ONLY ! These are LDP04 SEDs.

Starburst SED ASCII table
1st column: wavelength in m
2nd column: SED in W/Hz of a 10^9 Lsun galaxy
3rd column: SED in W/Hz of a 10^10 Lsun galaxy
4th column: SED in W/Hz of a 10^11 Lsun galaxy
5th column: SED in W/Hz of a 10^12 Lsun galaxy
6th column: SED in W/Hz of a 10^13 Lsun galaxy

Normal/Cold SED ASCII Table
1st column: wavelength in m
2nd column: SED in W/Hz of a 10^11 Lsun galaxy

Many more Starburst SED (with LogL steps of 0.1 Lsun) in ascii gzipped
Many more Normal/Cold SED (with LogL steps of 0.1 Lsun) in ascii gzipped

5- Simulations

Mock catalogs coming soon...

6- Getting the Papers

- Lagache, Dole, Puget, 2003, MNRAS, 338, 555 in PDF

- Lagache, Dole, Puget et al, 2004, ApJS, in PDF

- Bethermin, Dole, Lagache, Le Borgne and Penin, 529 A4 2011, AandA version or http://arxiv.org/abs/1010.1150

7- Links to Other Recent Models

- Bethermin et al., 2012 [galaxies, EBL]
- Rahmati & Van der Verf (2011) [galaxies]
- Gruppioni et al. (2011) [galaxies]
- Marsden et al. (2011) model [galaxies]
- Dominguez et al. (2010) obs and model [EBL]
- Kneiske and Dole (2010) model [EBL]
- Finke et al (2010) model [EBL]
- Valiante et al. (2009) model [galaxies]
- Le Borgne et al. (2009) model [galaxies]
- Rowan-Robinson et al. (2009) model [galaxies]
- Padova models (Franceschini 2008, 2010) and obs (Rodighiero et al. 2010) [galaxies, EBL]
- Kneiske et al. models [EBL]
- Fitting the SED of Galaxies, with links to many models [SED]
- SWIRE / Polletta SED templates [SED]
- Radiogalaxy counts (deZotti+2005) [galaxies]
- Send an email to H. Dole if a model link is missing !

- http://www.ias.u-psud.fr/irgalaxies -
Groupe Matière Interstellaire et Cosmologie
Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), bat 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France.
Université Paris Sud 11 and CNRS (UMR 8617)