It is fast becoming evident that cloud and haze are common features of exoplanet atmospheres, just as they are in the Solar System. Current data from the Hubble Space Telescope provide evidence for their presence, and some indications of their properties, but contain insufficient information to fully constrain cloud structure, particle size and composition. JWST will provide more detail about cloudy atmospheres provided signatures can be disentangled from those of star spots.
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The fine structure line [CII] at 158 microns is one of the brightest emission lines in the spectra of galaxies. It is considered to be the dominant coolant for neutral atomic gas in the interstellar medium. Conveniently, [CII] is redshifted into the sub-millimeter and millimeter atmospheric windows for 4.5<z<9. At high redshift, [CII] is thus a unique tracer of galaxy formation and a promising probe of the epoch of reionization (z>6). However, so far, [CII] studies of very distant galaxies have been limited, with detection of only a handful of galaxies.